Carl Jung was born on July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland. His father Paul was a Protestant minister and quite well educated. Carl began learning the Latin language at the young age of six, later graduating to more difficult languages such as Sanskrit. He was described as a solitary individual and didn't enjoy school or any sort of competition. His early studies took place at a boarding school in Basel, where he was the subject of much harassment.
After graduating from the boarding school, Carl began studying archaeology at the university in Basel. He changed his major to medicine after a short time and graduated with a degree in medicine. Immediately after graduating, Carl moved to Zurich, where he was given a position at the Burghoeltzli Mental Hospital under Eugene Bleuler, who had done much work on schizophrenia.
In 1903, Carl married a woman named Emma Rauschenbach and began his development of the theory of word association. His theory basically stated that a person's response to hearing "stimulus words" revealed complexes. His ideas became very popular and were quickly integrated into the practice of psychotherapy.
In 1907, Carl met Sigmund Freud in Vienna, where he reportedly spent 13 hours straight talking with him. Carl began sharing his ideas with Freud, but did not agree with Freud's narrow interpretation of the human sexual libido. Their relationship eventually disintegrated in 1909, but the two still maintained respect of each other.
From 1911 to 1914, Carl served as president of the International Psychoanalytic Association, a very prestigious organization of psychologists. He was also given chair positions at the universities of Basel and Zurich.
After World War 1, Carl spent much time traveling the world and studying tribes in Africa and the Americas. In 1923, he published a book called "Psychological Types", which explained the relationship between the conscious and unconscious. The book also theorized the existence of two personality types: extrovert and introvert. Jung theorized that a collective unconscious shared throughout humanity contained archetypes of inherited thoughts, emotions, and memories.
He officially retired from psychiatry in 1946 and was rarely seen in public after his wife died in 1955. Carl died on June 6, 1961 in Kusnacht, Switzerland.